Microbiology important notes ,

Microbiology Important Notes⤵lkj

☆Bacteria that thrive in high temperature (40'C - 70'C) are called
thermophilic

☆Spherical bacteria occurring in clusters are called staphylococcus

☆Non-motile small appendages on the surface of bacteria
which help in transfer of DNA from one cell to another during
conjugation are called as pili

☆Nosocomial Infection are those infection acquired by a person
after 48 hours of hospital stay.

☆The interval between exposure to infection and the appearance
of the first symptoms is called incubation period.

☆When a patient is already suffering from an infection acquires
another infection from another patient or source is called cross
infection.

☆Organisms that live in an intimate non-parasitic relationship
with the host are called commensal.

☆Bacteremia is the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the blood

☆A disease transmitted by direct contact is called as contagious
infection

☆Physician-induced infections resulting from investigative, therapeutic and other procedure like surgery is called iatrogenic infection

☆A chemical agent that inhibits bacterial growth is called
bacteriostat.

☆Autoclaving is the most reliable method of sterilization.

☆Culture media is sterilized by autoclaving method.

☆Vibrio cholera are coma-shaped bacteria.

☆Clostridium perfringens causes gas gangrene.

☆Clostridium botulism is spore forming, nonmotile, encapsulated
bacteria and causing food poisoning

☆Bacillary dysentery is commonly caused by Shigella
Salmonella typhi cause typhoid fever.

☆Widal test is the specific diagnostic test for typhoid fever.☆

☆Dapsone was the first drug discovered to treat leprosy.

☆Antony Van Leeuwenhoek developed microscope first time

☆Naul and Ruska developed electron microscope

☆In bacteria mesosome is responsible for respiration, cell
division and Sporulation

☆Capsule of the bacteria helps it to enables adherence to surface,
protection against phagocytosis, and Prevents desiccation and
provides nutrients.

☆Bacteria that are unable to synthesize their own food materials
are called Heterotrophs.

☆Mesophilic bacteria grow best between 25 and 40°C temperature

☆Transport medium is a special medium inhibits self-destruction
and multiplication of microbes but maintains "status quo
condition.

☆Differential staining gives different color to different bacteria

☆Hanging Drop Method is used to observe the motility of a
microbe

☆Blood and Bone Marrow Sample should be incubated at 37'c
during storage prior to processing

☆Pleomorphic Bacteria have variable shape (Bacteria with
changeable shape)

☆Bacteria that thrive in high temperature (40°C - 70'C ) are called
thermophilic

☆Leprosy also known as Hansen's disease.

☆T. pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis.

☆VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test is done for
the diagnosis of syphilis.

☆Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever.

☆Rubella infection to mother in the first trimester of pregnancy
may cause fetal death or congenital defect in the child.

☆Tsetse fly (Sandfly) transmit the condition known as Sleeping
sickness which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei.

☆Vector is responsible for spreading diseae from one to another

☆Filariasis is caused by Wucheriria bancrofti.

☆Plasmodium is an organism of group Sporozoa.

☆Intact skin, Mucous membrane and their secretions and
Normal microbial flora are body's nonspecific first line
resistance against an infection.

☆Inflammation, Fever and Phagocytic WBC are body's
nonspecific second line defence mechanism.

☆Antibodies are the part of specific third line defense.

☆Neutrophils and monocyte have phagocytic action.

☆Basophils release histamine to play role in inflammatory
reaction.

☆When the cells are invaded by a virus, they produce Interferon

☆A person acquire immunity after suffering from an infectious
disease, this type of immunity is known as Natural active
immunity

☆Natural passive immunity occurs when infant gets antibodies
from his mother through placenta and colostrum.

☆Diphtheria caused by Cornybacterium diphtheria

☆Intradermal route is used for diphtheria toxin injection in
Schick test. It is injected in Left fore arm

☆Tuberculin test is based on type 4 hypersensitivity

☆Ziehl Neelsen stain is also known as acid-fast stain.




☆Ziehl Neelsen stain is also known as acid-fast stain

☆In Mantoux test, purified protein derivative (PPD) is injected intradermaly. Erythema, Edema and Induration suggestive of positive mantoux test.

☆Organisms that originate from outside the body of the patient are known as exogenous

☆Fomites: The objects contaminated with pathogenic micro-
organisms

☆Mutation is the alteration in genetic material

☆Acetone is the decolorizing agent used in gram staining

☆E. coli is a Gram negative motile bacilli

☆Pasteurization of milk:
• HTST (High Temperature Short Time) of flash method: The
milk is heated to 72 °C (161 °F) for 15 seconds
Holder method: The milk is heated to 63'C and holding this
for 30 minutes.

☆Black, yellow, red and blue are the color codes used in bio-
medical waste management《BMW》

☆Staphylococcus aureus is a motile organism

☆Hepatitis A, polio, typhoid are mainly transmitted by feco-oraL route.

☆Ascaris lumbricoides is known as round worm.

☆P. ovale is a species which is not reported in India.

☆Artificial active immunity may be produced by vaccination

☆Artificial passive immunity is through the parenteral
administration of antibodies.

☆Herd immunity is the overall resistance in a community.

☆Antigen is a substance introduction of this into the body evoke
immune reaction.

☆IgG is the major serum immunoglobulin and is the only
immunoglobulin which can cross the placenta.

☆IgA is the main immunoglobulin which is present in body
secretions

☆Presence of IgM antibody in the serum of a newborn baby
suggestive of congenital infection.

☆IgE mediate type-1 hypersensitivity reactions.

☆IgM is the macro immunoglobulin.

☆Clostridial pathogenicity is mainly because of the production
of exotoxin

☆Mycoplasma differ from other bacteria because they lack a
rigid cell wall.

☆Mycoplasma are the smallest free living microorganism.

☆Poxvirus are the largest and most complex of all viruses.

☆Hepatitis B is caused by DNA virus and all other type of
hepatitis is caused by RNA virus.

☆HBsAg is also called as Australia antigen.

☆Definitive host in which sexual replication of parasite occur.

☆Intermediate host in which asexual replication of parasite
occurs

☆Louis Pasteur proposed the germ theory of disease.

☆Robert Koch proved/confirmed the germ theory of disease.

☆Mycobacterium leprae was the first bacterium identified as
causing disease in humans.

☆Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also known as Koch's bacillus.



☆Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is considered as the father of
microbiology

☆Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic surgery.

☆Louis Pasteur introduced of sterilization technique and stem
sterilizer, auto-clave and hot air oven

☆Louis Pasteur introduced first live attenuated vaccine

☆Robert Koch is known as father of bacteriology

☆Robert Koch introduced staining technique

☆Robert Koch discovered anthrax bacillus, tubercle bacillus and
the cholera vibrios.

☆Karl Landsteiner discovered ABO blood groups

☆Alexander Fleming discovered the drug penicillin
Bacterial cell division occur by binary fission

☆Hot air oven is a dry heat sterilization method while autoclave
is moist heat sterilization method

☆Temperature and time required in hot air oven is 160°C for 2
hours for sterilization.

☆Temperature and time required in autoclave is 121°C for 15
minutes at a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch.

☆Filtration is a method adopted to sterilize sera, sugar and
antibiotic solutions.

☆A parasite is a microorganism which lives on a living host and
derives nutrition from the host without any benefits to the host.

  

           

                 

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