Menstrual Cycle MCQs WITH ANSWER

Menstrual Cycle MEDICAL TUBER Review Questions
1. The _________ is responsible for secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
A. Thalamus
B. Hypothalamus
C. Anterior pituitary gland
D. Posterior pituitary gland
2. During which cycle day of a typical 28 day menstrual cycle does the follicular phase occur?
A. Cycle days 7-14
B. Cycle days 14-28
C. Cycle days 1-6
D. Cycle days 1-13
3. As the graafian follicle matures, a massive amount of estrogen is released by the follicle which causes a luteinizing hormone surge. Approximately, what cycle day does the LH surge occur?
A. Cycle day 11-13
B. Cycle Day 14
C. Cycle day 5-8
D. Cycle day 1-6
4. Select all the functions of the luteinizing hormone:
A. Forming the corpus luteum
B. Thickening the endometrium layer for implantation
C. Breaking down the wall of the graffian follicle to allow for release of the ovum
D. Thinning cervical mucous
5. During which stage of the menstrual cycle does the endometrium layer thicken?
A. Secretory Phase
B. Luteal Phase
C. Ovulation Phase
D. Proliferative Phase
6. What cycle day does the proliferative stage occur?
A. Cycle day 7-14
B. Cycle day 14-28
C. Cycle day 1-6
D. Cycle day 1-14
7. Which statement is TRUE about the ovulation phase?
A. The newly released egg will live for 72 hours and disintegrate if not fertilized.
B. The woman will have a low basal body temperature before ovulation and then a temperature increase of 0.4-1’F degrees around ovulation.
C. The ovum is directly released into the fallopian tube.
D. Fertilization most commonly occurs at the fimbria.
8. If the ovum is to be fertilized, where is the most common site of fertilization?
A. Uterine wall
B. Fimbria
C. Ampulla of the Fallopian Tube
D. Isthmus of the Fallopian Tube
9. In what stage does the corpus luteum form?
A. Luteal Phase
B. Follicular Phase
C. Proliferative Phase
D. None of the above
10. What cycle day does the luteal phase occur?
A. Cycle days 15-28
B. Cycle days 5-13
C. Cycle day 14
D. Cycle days 7-14
11. The corpus luteum secretes (select-all-that-apply)?
A. Progesterone
B. Estrogen
12. During the menstrual phase the _________ layer of the endometrium is shed.
A. Stratum basalis
B. Stratum functionalis
C. Stratum compactum
D. Myometrium
13. A patient is trying to prevent pregnancy by using the rhythm method. At what time during a woman’s cycle is she the most fertile?
A. Cycle days 21-28
B. Cycle days 1-6
C. Cycle days 9-16
D. Cycle days 6-9
14. ___________ is released from the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates the follicles in the ovary to mature.
A. Progesterone
B. Follicle-stimulating hormone
C. Estrogen
D. Human chorionic gonadotropin
15. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will disintegrate and turn into what is called the?
A. Corpus Albicans
B. Corpus Callosum
C. Corpus Cavernosum
D. Corpus Allatum
16. Select all the following that is NOT a function of progesterone and estrogen:
A. Inhibits the production of LH and FSH
B. Causes the hypothalamus to release gonadotropin releasing hormone
C. Maintains the endometrium for pregnancy
D. Causes the follicle to mature into a graafian follicle
17. True or False: One of the many functions of progesterone is to maintain the endometrium for the fertilized ovum.
18. If fertilization occurs the corpus luteum will act as a temporary endocrine structure to release hormones. It will do this until the placenta is fully developed to take over with hormone secretion and this occurs at approximately?
A. 4 weeks gestation
B. 8 weeks gestation
C. 20 weeks gestation
D. 2 weeks gestatioN

Question 1

Which one of the following is the primary source of progesterone in the later stages of pregnancy?
Corpus luteum
Question 1 Explanation: 
The corpus luteum is the primary source of progesterone at the start of pregnancy, however, the corpus luteum breaks down eventually. So from the 8th week of pregnancy, the main source of progesterone is the placenta.
Question 2
Which of the following symptoms indicate that a woman is about to ovulate?
Decrease in basal body temperature
Increase in basal body temperature
Thickening of cervical mucous
Thinning of cervical mucous
Question 2 Explanation: 
An increase in a woman's basal body temperature occurs due to the LH surge. As a result, the rise in body temperature indicates that ovulation is likely to occur in the next 24-48 hours. The cervical mucus also becomes thinner around the time of ovulation to allow easier passage of sperm.
Question 3
Which of the following are effects of increased levels of oestrogen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle?
Hair thinning
Thickening of cervical mucous
Thinning of cervical mucous
Thickening of the endometrium
Question 3 Explanation: 
In the follicular phase oestrogen functions to increase the probability of successful fertilisation. As a result, it causes the mucus of the cervix to become much thinner allowing easier passage of sperm. It also causes thickening of the endometrium to increase chances of successful implantation of a blastocyst.
Question 4
At which stage in the uterine cycle does the secretory phase occur?
Days 1-5
Days 5-14
Days 14-28
Question 4 Explanation: 
The secretory phase of the menstrual cycle begins after ovulation when the ruptured graafian follicle develops into the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum produces progesterone which causes the endometrium to begin secreting various substances which make the uterus more receptive to implantation of a fertilised ovum.
Question 5
Which of the following statements are true about menstruation?
In a normal 28 day menstrual cycle you would expect menstruation to last approximately 3-5 days.
During menstruation the entire endometrium is shed.
During menstruation only the functional layer of the endometrium is shed, with the basal layer remaining intact.
Absence of menstruation always indicates an active pregnancy.
Question 5 Explanation: 
It is not uncommon for women to miss a period, however, it doesn't necessarily mean a woman is pregnant. It can be due to a large number of other factors such as hormonal imbalances, stress, diet, age and contraception.
Question 6
In a normal 28 day menstrual cycle, when would you expect the LH surge to occur?
Days 8-10
Days 11-13
Days 14-16
Days 17-19
Question 6 Explanation: 
The LH surge usually occurs on day 12. This occurs due to oestrogen levels reaching a peak level which stimulates large amounts of LH production. The high LH level causes the membrane of the Graafian follicle to become thin. As a result, 24-48 hours after the LH surge ovulation usually occurs due to the rupture of the Graafian follicle.
Question 7
Which hormone is the corpus luteum responsible for producing?
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Luteinizing hormone
Question 7 Explanation: 
The corpus luteum produces progesterone which causes the endometrium to become receptive to implantation of a blastocyst and prevents menstruation occurring.
Question 8
Where is gonadotrophin-releasing hormone produced?
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Adrenal glands
Question 9
Which of the following are functions of progesterone?
Inhibition of oestrogen production
Inhibition of LH and FSH production
Initiation of the secretory phase of the endometrium
Increase in basal body temperature
Question 9 Explanation: 
Progesterone is involved in many different processes during the menstrual cycle. It causes the endometrium to become more receptive to implantation of a fertilised ovum. It also inhibits the production of LH and FSH via negative feedback.
Question 10
At which point in the menstrual cycle is a woman most fertile?
Days 1-5
Days 9-16
Days 17-21
Days 22-28
Question 10 Explanation: 
The most fertile period of the menstrual cycle is from 5 days before ovulation to 1-2 days after. Couples often use this knowledge to increase their chances of conception.
Question 11
At which stage of the uterine cycle does the menstrual phase occur?
Days 1-5
Days 5-14
Days 14-28
Question 11 Explanation: 
The menstrual phase occurs at the very beginning of the uterine cycle. It only occurs if no ovum is fertilised. The process begins with the breakdown of the corpus luteum which therefore ceases to produce progesterone. The loss of progesterone causes vasoconstriction of the spiral arteries supplying the functional layer of the endometrium. As a result, it becomes necrotic and is then lost through the vagina causing the 3-5 days of bleeding.
Question 12
Where are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) produced?
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Adrenal glands
Question 13
At which stage in the uterine cycle does the proliferative phase occur?
Days 1-5
Days 5-14
Days 15-28
Question 13 Explanation: 
The proliferative phase begins immediately after the menstrual phase and involves increased levels of oestrogen driving repair and growth of the functional endometrial layer.
Question 14
Which of the following are functions of luteinizing hormone (LH)?
Formation and maintenance of the corpus luteum
Thinning of the Graafian follicles membrane
Stimulation of follicle development
Stimulation of GnRH production

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